Professor Christina Cogdell
11 March 2018
Do you have a baseball hat? A baseball hat seems to be a pretty small and common object in people’s lives nowadays because it is not extremely expensive and everybody seems to have one. Thus, some people may think making a baseball hat is not a big deal. However, in fact, making such a small thing like baseball hat is not as easy as some people think. To be more detailed, to make a baseball hat will take a lot of preparations, consume a lot of energy, and use a lot of resources; furthermore, the production process and waste issues could also be pretty complex to deal with. Most importantly, make a baseball hat will need to use some specific materials, such as cotton, rubber, rayon thread, and dye; and these materials are not only the basic raw materials of a baseball hat but also could take a long way to be produced and supplied.
At first, cotton is one of the main materials of making a baseball hat because the panels, crown, and bill are all made based on the cotton. In other words, cotton takes up the biggest portion of the material in a baseball hat, so growing good cotton is a crucial step. To be more specific, places with warm climates are usually the areas of where most of the cotton grow. Amber Pariona, the author of “Top Raw Cotton Importing Countries In The World”, has introduced that “most of the world’s cotton is grown in the U.S., Uzbekistan, the People’s Republic of China and India”. In America, “the major cotton-producing states are Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Georgia, and so on” (The Story of Cotton- Where Cotton Grows). In general, cotton will need around four months to grow mature enough to be harvested; depending on different cotton categories and different climates of where cotton grows, the time will vary around 15 days. To grow cotton, the first step is to plant the cottonseed. According to the article of “Cotton”, it claims that cottonseed is planted into the dirt for 0.75-1.25 inch deep by the machine, and the machine can plant 12 rows at one time. Then, after about 11 days, people need to clean up the soil crust on the top of the seedlings, in order to allow the plant to emerge. Next, after about 6 weeks, the ovary in the plant begins to ripen and finally becomes a cotton ball, and the cotton ball takes another 10 weeks to mature and flowers appear; then cotton formed. Before the harvest, Farmers usually wait until the cotton to defoliate by itself, but they also use the method of spraying chemical to help cotton to defoliate (“Cotton”). There are two methods to harvest the cotton, one is using machines, the other one is by hand. “Harvesting is done by machine in the United States” (“Cotton”). However, not all cotton is ready to be harvested at the same time, farmers usually need to do 2 or 3 more times. As for the recycle of cotton, people usually abandon those used cotton and set them in the landfills forever because the “staple length of used cotton is greatly shortened”(Bain). In other words, quality of used cotton is too low to be reused again. After cotton is successfully produced, people use machines to process these raw cotton into cotton threads in the factories, and threads will be sewed together by machines into cotton sheets, which are the main components to make the frame of the baseball hat. Therefore, from the production process of cotton, it’s clear to see that producing cotton not only involves many strict steps but also takes a pretty long time; hence, providing cotton is not an easy job.
In the second place, rubber is another major material of a baseball hat. In details, rubber could be divided into two categories: natural rubber and synthetic rubber. Natural rubber is made from the latex, which is a kind of white liquid; people usually obtain latex from certain plants such as rubber tree and manufacture it in the factories. Synthetic rubber is actually made from various petroleum byproducts. In addition, Chris Woodford, the author of “Rubber: A Simple Production”, asserts in the article that “today, most natural rubber still comes from the Far East, while Russia and its former republics, France, Germany, and the United States are among the world's leading producers of synthetic rubber”(Woodford). Thus, synthetic rubber is cheaper than the natural rubber in America because America could produce synthetic rubber in its own factories, but most of the natural rubber need to be imported from the Far East. Hence, instead of natural rubber, people prefer using synthetic rubber since synthetic rubber has a lower cost and higher quantities. Nevertheless, even though synthetic rubber does not cost too much money to produce, the process of making it is pretty complex. According to the article “Rubber - Natural or Synthetic Production, Pricing and Applications”, the author describes that Butadiene and Styrene are first put into a reactor with soap suds, and wait for them to transform to liquid latex. Then, the latex will be extended with a dilute acid to force the latex to become the actual rubber. Next, in order to remove the redundant liquid from the rubber, the solid latex will be pushed through the heavy rolls. The last step is to imprint a texture on the rubber through the last rolls, and then the synthetic rubber will be ready to transport (“Rubber - Natural or Synthetic Production, Pricing and Applications”). Afterwards, these raw rubbers will be cut into pieces with different length and width, and factories would choose the suitable ones, combining with the cotton panels to form the bill of a hat. For those redundant and used rubber, they will be processed through vulcanization, pyrolysis, and other mechanical processes to be recycled (“Recycling Rubber”). Therefore, from the process of manufacturing the synthetic rubber, it’s possible to say that even though people only use a pretty small piece of rubber in making a hat, the process of producing it could truly be a complicated thing to operate and manage.
The next material used in the baseball hat manufacture is the rayon thread. Threads can be divided into many different styles and categories, such as cotton thread, silk thread, wool thread and so on; baseball hats are usually made with rayon thread. In addition, “rayon is used for a wide range of fabrics for household textiles as well as fine and utilitarian fashions”, so baseball hat is only one of its product (“Category: Rayon”). Since rayon thread is pretty soft and colorfast, people always feel comfortable with rayon thread products, just like Ed Mass says in his article that “rayon is breathable and does not insulate body heat, making it ideal for use in clothing worn in hot and humid climates” (Mass). However, although rayon thread is such an ideal material for making the baseball hat, to make the rayon thread isn’t that easy since the process involves some important chemical reactions. To start with, referring to the article “Rayon Thread”, it explains that “rayon is made from wood pulp and processed with chemicals”. In details, the article has introduced that the first step of making rayon is to remove the bark, and then chip the wood into very small pieces and boil them under pressure. Next, these products need to be chemically treated in the factories, washed and dried them into actual rayon threads at the end (“Rayon Thread”). As for the recycle of rayon, people usually donate them to charitable organization, and organization will disassemble and reuse them to make new products (“Rayon Recycling”). After the rayon thread is made, people will use rayon thread to weave and sew all different portions of hats together; for example, rayon thread effectively connects the bill and the crown of a hat. What’s more, people will also use rayon thread to weave different letters, patterns and logos on all sides of a baseball hat, in order to make it more styled and fashionate. Hence, rayon thread is another basic material of a baseball hat.
The last material of a baseball hat is the dye, and different brands use dye to color baseball hats into different colors, so the dye is one which is used to make baseball hats look unique from each other. Many countries in the world could manufacture dyes in their own factories, and America also operates factories in other countries as well, such as China. Most of the natural dye is made from plants which have sufficient colors; flowers, leaves from the trees, roots of certain types of plants and so on are good sources for the natural dye. In regard to the production of dye, according to the article “Making Natural Dye From Plants”, it says the first step is to “chop plant material into small pieces and place in a pot”, and then “add twice much of water, comparing to plant material, into the pot”. After then, the next step is “bringing the mixture to a boil and then simmering it, stirring occasionally, for at least an hour”. By doing that, all pigments inside of the mixture are coming out from plants and merging together with the water. The last step is to strain out the plant mixture and remain the liquid in the container; after then, the dye is successfully made (“How to Make Natural Dyes”). As for the redundant and wasted dye water, “it will be sent through the Ultrafiltration (UF) system, and then water will go through Reverse Osmosis (RO) again to remove all solid matter from the water, transforming to clean water”(“How We Recycle Our Dye Water” ). Once the dye is ready to use, people will put the prepared cotton sheets and panels in the dye liquid and wait until the fabric completely absorb the pigments. After the fabric turns into desired color, people need to wash the fabric with cold water, in order to remove the redundant pigment. Then, after the cotton sheets dried, they will be cut into multiple panels to make the shape of a baseball hat. Accordingly, dye is truly a crucial material because it adds different pigments to the fabric and makes them colorful during the production process. In other words, dye is the one that gives every baseball hat its own style.
After gathering all four main materials, making a baseball hat need to follow five steps. To start with, people need to measure all of the materials and calculate the exact size for every portion of the baseball hat, like crown, bill and so on. To make the crown, people need to cut a large cotton sheet into six panels with equal size, and they “are then sent to the sewing department where they are stitched together to form the crown of the hat” (“Baseball Cap”). Similarly, to make the bill, another large cotton sheet is cut into two panels with precise size as the third step. Next, people need to cut rubber into piece and insert and sew it into the middle of those two panels, from the third step, to form the bill of the hat. At last, crown and bill is connected by the rayon thread, and finally, a baseball hat is finished.
In conclusion, cotton, rayon thread, rubber, and dye are four major raw materials of a baseball hat, and each of them requires people to put a lot of effort to make them. For instance, supplying cotton needs to follow strict steps; most importantly, people need to patiently take about four months to wait for cotton to be produced. Also, people need to be very careful during the process of making rubber since making rubber includes some complex chemical reactions. Accordingly, the production of making a baseball hat is not as simple as how a baseball looks like because it incorporates so many things that people need to prepare, consider and deal with; however, preparing and supplying the raw materials is just one of them.
Work Cited Page
Bain, Marc. “Why cotton is so difficult to recycle-and how clothing retailers hope to change that.” Quartz, Quartz, 26 Aug. 2015, https://qz.com/487423/why-cotton-is-so-difficult-to-recycle-and-how-clothing-retailers-hope-to-change-that/
“Baseball Cap.” How Products Are Made, www.madehow.com/Volume-4/Baseball-Cap.html.
“Category: Rayon.” Museum Textile Services, 3 June 2013, www.museumtextiles.com/blog/category/rayon
“Cotton.” How Products Are Made, www.madehow.com/Volume-6/Cotton.html.
“How to Make Natural Dyes.” WikiHow, 8 Nov. 2017, www.wikihow.com/Make-Natural-Dyes.
“How We Recycle Our Dye Water.” Brown Sheep Company, Inc., www.brownsheep.com/how-we-recycle-our-dye-water/.
“Making Natural Dyes from Plants.” Pioneer Thinking. 19 June 2012, https://pioneerthinking.com/natural-dyes.
Mass, Ed. “Eco-Fiber or Fraud? Are Rayon, Modal, and Tencel Environmental Friends or Foes?” Natural Life Magazine, www.life.ca/naturallife/0908/ecofiber_or_fraud.htm.
Pariona, Amber. “Top Raw Cotton Importing Countries In The World.” WorldAtlas, 16 May 2017, www.worldatlas.com/articles/top-raw-cotton-importing-countries-in-the-world.html.
“Rayon Recycling.” Home Guides | SF Gate, http://homeguides.sfgate.com/rayon-recycling-79743.html
“Rayon Threads.” Superior Threads, www.superiorthreads.com/education/about-rayon-threads.
“Recycling Rubber.” Conserve Energy Future, 24 Dec. 2016, www.conserve-energy-future.com/recyclingrubber.php.
“Rubber - Natural or Synthetic Production, Pricing and Applications.” Agiboo CTRM, www.agiboo.com/commodity-knowledge-center/commodities/rubber/.
“The Story of Cotton- Where Cotton Grows”, www.cotton.org/pubs/cottoncounts/story/where.cfm.
Woodford, Chris. “Rubber: A simple introduction.” Explain that Stuff, 20 Aug. 2017, www.explainthatstuff.com/rubber.html.
Professor Christina Cogdell
11 March 2018
A quick google search for baseball caps will lead you to Alibaba.com; a Chinese e-commerce giant that sells practically every object imaginable. A plain baseball cap’s price is just $.88 cents, and that includes the cost of shipping over 6,500 miles. This begs the question as to how a baseball cap can be made so cheaply and at what environmental cost. Despite being a rather small object that is given little thought by the consumer, the production of baseball caps has a significantly negative environmental impact and produces considerable waste.
In order to further investigate the environmental impact of a baseball cap, it must first be broken down into its raw materials. The most common materials used in the construction of a baseball cap are: cotton, rubber, rayon, and dyes (“Baseball Cap”). The materials used in baseball caps undergo a long and complex life cycle before they ever become a hat component.
The origins of the materials in question are a mix of both synthetic and natural. The primary material in baseball hat construction is cotton. Cotton is a material Americans are more than familiar with. Tee shirts, pants, jackets, and sheets are made out of it. At any given time the average American is adorned with at least one product made out of cotton. 2.4% of the entire world’s cropland is planted with cotton so, needless to say, its level of production is significant. Despite cotton being 2.4% of the harvest grown on the world's cropland, cotton “accounts for 24% and 11% of the global sales of insecticide and pesticides respectively” (“Cotton Farming”). Pesticides and insecticides are far from harmless. Pesticides sprayed on crops often find their way into local water supplies which can lead to the unintended killing of non target species. The amount of water used to grow and process cotton must also be mentioned for it is far from insignificant as well. Often, “it can take more than 20,000 litres of water to produce 1kg of cotton; equivalent to a single T-shirt and pair of jeans” (“Cotton Farming”). From this, it can be hypothesized that it takes roughly ⅙ of this amount of cotton to make a baseball cap. That means that a baseball cap’s use of cotton alone totals roughly 3,333 liters of water. After cotton is processed into a usable product one would assume that at least most of the sellable cotton is being gathered efficiently, but unfortunately that is not the case. Cotton production sampled, “generated wastes contain about 50% good fibre. This secondary raw material showed good cleanability and characteristics.” This tells us that in the manufacturing of cotton roughly 50% of usable material is being thrown away (Elsevier).
The next material in the baseball cap is rubber. Rubber is what forms the bill of the baseball cap. This paper will be examining the waste in the production of natural rubber for baseball cap’s. The raw material used for natural rubber processing is latex, mainly tapped from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) (ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES). This may give the impression that, because the primary ingredient in rubber is natural, the process of producing usable rubber is not environmentally costly. However, this would be untrue. In the process of making a refined usable natural rubber a lot of wastewater is discharged. And as most rubber factories are near the rubber plantations, as it makes processing easier, this wastewater often times finds its way into local bodies of water. Natural rubber waste “compounds are readily biodegradable and this will result in high oxygen consumption upon discharge of wastewater in receiving surface water” (ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES). This consumption of oxygen in the water leaves the water oxygen deficient, putting large strains on flora and fauna. Nitrogen making its way into the water supply is also a growing problem, “most of the concentrated latex factories in the South of Thailand discharge treated wastewater that contains high level of nitrogen and ammonia to a nearby river or canals leading to a water pollution problem. If high level of ammonia is discharged to water bodies, it could lead to death of some aquatic organisms living in the water” (ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES).
Often when rayon is mentioned it is referred to using phrases like natural, or derived from wood. To turn wood into rayon requires rigorous processing and the addition of numerous chemicals. Rayon is most often made from “wood pulp, which is produced from timber. After the bark has been removed, the wood is chipped into very small pieces, boiled under pressure, chemically treated, washed, and then dried”(Rayon Threads). The material is then spun into a thread in a chemical bath. The recovery of this chemical bath to be used again is only around 50%. The byproduct contains “sodium hydroxide and sulfuric acid,” that makes its way back into the environment (BAMBOO AND RAYON).
Lastly, we take a look at the dyes that brighten a baseball cap with all different colors and shades. Dying has various problems associated with it. Not only do the dyes themself cause environmental damage, but the mordants used to fix the colors also take a heavy toll. When fabrics are combined with water, dyes, and mordants, only “about 80 percent of the dyestuffs stay(s) on the fabric” and the rest is wasted (Kant). And the amount of water contaminated with these chemical is not minimal, “It takes about 500 gallons of water to produce enough fabric to cover one sofa” (Kant). This inevitable wastewater makes its way into rivers and streams is also not clear, it still has vibrant colors from the dye. This leads to the contaminated bodies of water not being able to be penetrated by the sun which leads to the death of flora and fauna and prevents the water from self purifying (Kant).
Shipping materials in the production process is a major source of hard to track emissions. Cotton is grown in warm climates and is often grown in warmer parts of China (The Story of Cotton). Since the baseball caps are being produced in China, it is likely that the cotton is grown there as well. This localization of materials helps reduce the cost and emissions involved in shipping materials to factories. The same localization occurs for rayon and dyes, both of which are produced in China (Rayon, Chhabra). Rubber is the only material produced outside of China. Rubber is harvested in Thailand, and processed close by before it is transported to China (Natural Rubber). It is estimated that rubber travels 1,300 miles on its journey from Thailand to China, emitting emissions during transport (Distance Thailand). It takes roughly 1,000 grams of Co2 to ship 1 pound of baseball caps from China to the United States, not to mention the incalculable VOC emitted as well (Freight Emissions).
Emissions from the production of materials:
Emissions from the production of materials are nearly impossible to calculate. The numbers simply are not readily available for review. It is entirely possible that these numbers are unrecorded and often under reported, if reported at all. We can assume that significant emissions are produced at every step during the processing of the materials and that all production processes rely on fossil fuel sources. The only exception would be the final sewing being mainly human powered.
Throughout everyday life Americans encounter cheap, disposable objects. From the pen that rapidly runs out of ink, to the free shirts and towels thrown at sports games, the true cost is overlooked. When one holds these objects, it is doubtful that the amount of CO2 emitted in its production comes to mind. The way objects are viewed by the consumer needs to change. When looking at an 88 cent baseball cap online, one is deceived that it is rapidly available at little cost. The cost is large, not fiscally, but environmentally. The enormous amount of water it takes to produce the cotton, the toxic chemicals leaching into water sources at every step, and the unknown amount of fuel used in transport and production all take a heavy environmental toll. Culture needs to change. Americans need to take pride in well made, sustainable products. We need products that will be well worn, transformed, and well worn again and again. What don't Americans need? An ill fitting baseball hat riddled with environmental costs.
Works cited page:
“Baseball Cap.” How Products Are Made, www.madehow.com/Volume-4/Baseball-Cap.ht
"Cotton Farming." WWF. Accessed March 04, 2018. http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/about_freshwater/freshwater_problems/thirsty_crops/cotton/.
“Cotton waste recycling: Quantitative and qualitative assessment.” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Elsevier, 30 Jan. 2008, www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921344907002078.
“ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES CAUSED BY RUBBER INDUSTRY.” The environmental impact by nearby businesses, 8 Jan. 2012, businessimpactenvironment.wordpress.com/2011/10/03/environmental-issues-caused-by-rubber-industry/.
“Rayon Threads.” Superior Threads, www.superiorthreads.com/education/about-rayon-thread
“BAMBOO AND RAYON.” Www.patagonia.com, Patagonia, www.patagonia.com/on/demandware.static/Sites-patagonia-us-Site/Library-Sites-PatagoniaShared/en_US/PDF-US/bamboo_rayon.pdf.
Kant, Rita. “Textile dyeing industry an environmental hazard.” Scirp.org, Scientific Research Publishing, 31 Dec. 2011, file.scirp.org/Html/4-8301582_17027.htm.
The Story of Cotton- Where Cotton Grows, www.cotton.org/pubs/cottoncounts/story/where.cfm
“Rayon.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 7 Feb. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rayon#Producers.
Chhabra, Esha. “The dirty secret about your clothes.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 30 Dec. 2016, www.washingtonpost.com/business/the-dirty-secret-about-your-clothes/2016/12/30/715ed0e6-bb20-11e6-94ac-3d324840106c_story.html?utm_term=.77421431b185.
AZoM, Written by. “Natural Rubber / Latex – Production of Natural Rubber.” AZoM.com, 11 June 2013, www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=3580.
“Distance Thailand > China - Air line, driving route, midpoint.” Www.distance.to, www.distance.to/Thailand/China.
“Freight Emissions Calculator.” Freight Emissions Calculator, www.freightemissionscalculator.com/.
The modern baseball cap originated from the one that has long peak and button on the upper part, which was the favorite of Excelsior of Brooklyn, an amateur baseball team back in 1860s. (Wikipedia) 19th centuries ended and 20th centuries began. The design of baseball cap then evolved and became more humanized. The most significant revision of baseball cap was its peak: the peak was improved to be longer than before to protect a player’s eye from intense sunlight more effectively in day time. Nike company was first registered as Blue Ribbon Sports and then officially became Nike in 1971. (History of Baseball Cap) The baseball manufactured by Nike was better structured compared to the common “floppy” cap in early 20th centuries. Many components are applied by Nike in today‘s manufacturing baseball caps.(History of Nike) Several types of raw materials are collected in source area and transported to manufacturer to produce salable products. Most of the manufacturing process are done in China.
Several raw materials are demanded to produce a Nike Baseball Cap. They are Cotton, Rubber, Rayon, and Dye. First, the cultivation and harvest of cotton is very energy-consuming due to today’s mechanized cultivating and harvesting machine. After cotton are collected, mechanical energy would be utilized again to “condense the fiber into bales”(Penn). Bales are then cleaned and processed manually into yarn. Eventually, those yarned would be waived into cloth by automatic waiving machine.
There are two applicable types of rubber in the production of a baseball cap. One is synthetic rubber, which is made from several artificial chemicals and includes intensive chemical energy. However, the other type of rubber, the one made from natural material is applied more frequently in Baseball cap productions. The process of making natural rubber includes human power, heat energy, a little chemical power, and mechanical power (As shown in figure 2). First, human power is consumed in the “rubber tapping”, a process to harvest latex from rubber trees. Then mechanical power is utilized in filtering and washing latex. Then, Chemical energy are included when the latex chemically reacts with acid, which helps particles of rubber stick together. (Woodford) The refinement of unprocessed rubber consumes energy too. Electricity and mechanical energy are utilized when masticating machines makes raw rubber softer. Then, chemical power are utilized again when chemicals are mixed to make rubber more head wearing. Finally, rubber would be vulcanized by heat energy to finish the final step of rubber production.
Although Rayon seems like a kind of plastic and made of artificial chemical compounds, its production is actually an intensively energy-consuming process and requires many natural raw materials (As shown in figure 1). At the beginning, machinal energy (powered by electricity) is utilized to process raw materials in extracting and purifying cellulose. (How Products are Made) In processing purified cellulose, chemical energy (first caustic soda) are consumed in producing sheets of alkali cellulose. Then, solar energy or heat energy are utilized in drying sheets. In the production of filaments, chemical energy (acid bath) consumption takes place in order to regenerate cellulose filaments. As reference says, “. In Pot Spinning, the filaments are first stretched under controlled tension onto a series of offsetting rollers called godet wheels the strings are then washed, bleached, rinsed, dried, and wound on cones or spools.”,” Spool Spinning is very similar to Pot Spinning. The filaments are passed through rollers and wound on spools, where they are washed, bleached, rinsed, dried, and wound again on spools or cones.” and “In Continuous Spinning, the filaments are washed, bleached, dried, twisted, and wound at the same time that they are stretched over godet wheels.” (How Products are Made), Three types of spinning, Pot Spinning, Spool Spinning and Continuous Spinning, consumes 3 types of energy: mechanical energy, chemical energy and heat energy in stretching filaments into yarns. At the same time, the production of rayon does have great impact on environment, like it says, “Rayon requires raw wood, usually hemlock or pine, and a great deal of water and energy to process. Here's a fun fact: Port Angeles, WA was once home to a pulp mill that produced the raw cellulose needed to make rayon and a number of other products. Today, it's a toxic cleanup site.” (How Products are Made), huge consumption of energy and natural raw material are
bringing damage to environment.
Most of the pigment used in dyeing baseball cap are man-made. Therefore, human power is greatly involved in producing dyes, especially when the raw materials of dye, petroleum, mineral-derived materials are combined together. (How to make Natural Dyes to Dye Fabric & Clothes at Home)
After all raw material are collected and processed in Thailand, they are being transported to China for manufacturing and further production. In this process, gasoline is consumed. After materials are all transported, industrial sewing, the process of combining all material into sellable products starts. First, all specifications and markers are done manually. Then sewing starts by manual laborers working on sewing machines. “The basic process of sewing involves fastening of fabrics, leather, furs or similar other flexible materials with the help of needle and threads. Most of such industrial sewing is done by industrial sewing machines. The cut pieces of a garment are generally tacked, or temporarily stitched at the initial stage. The complex parts of the machine then pierce thread through the layers of the cloth and interlocks the thread.” (Sewing Process)
Interestingly, although processing and formulation is the most crucial part of production and includes many steps. It does not consume intensive energy. From cutting shape of cotton clothes to sewing parts all together into a baseball cap, the energy in the process are basically human Energy.
Nike is an international company that’s famous not only for its unique and popular cloth design but also its excellence in integrating resource all around world to make the price acceptable. When the whole production processes are done, products will be sold to customers. Once the baseball caps repeatedly put on and put off, the energy consumed in this process mainly comes from human. All parts of a cap: Visor, Crown, Panels are wear-resistant, the cap can be used for very long time till it is broken. After thousands of times worn and the cap gets broken, people would very likely just throw it away and buy a new one, in that a Nike baseball cap is price-fridendly.
How Products are Made
Fibre to Fashion
How Products are Made
How Products Are Made
“History of Nike”
Kicks on Fire