Eames Fiberglass Chair – Embodied Energy
When we sit in plastic chairs, we don’t really think about its design or how it was produced. It is simply just a chair. Never thought what of the materials needed, where it came from, who produced it, who designed it? Consumers buy products without thinking of any of its process cycle, from the start of its creation to the end life. Among the many products in this world, the Eames molded fiberglass chairs is one of the famous chair in furniture design. Created by Charles and Ray Eames in 1949, it was meant for a low-cost piece of furniture. It was originally an entry to the International Low-Cost Furniture Competition in 1948. On January 18, 1949, the Eames Chair came in second place (Handler). However, the entry was designed to use stamped steel and no fiberglass (IDSA). It was selected due to its creative base where it could fit in various environments.
After meeting with the Herman Miller Company for production, it came into conclusion that it would be quite expensive to mold the chair entirely out of steel. Not only was the cost a problem but also the chair could rust overtime during usage and the since steel is so cold, it would need a special coating, neoprene, to make it more comfortable for its buyers. Charles and Ray Eames continued their search for a different material for the shell of their chair. Into the picture came fiberglass by Zenith Plastics (Handler). After meeting up with Sol Fingerhut and Irv Green from Zenith Plastics, Charles wanted to talk about how to piece together the base to its shell and create a smooth finishing look. After solving their problems that could come up during fiberglass production of the Eames Chair, the Zenith Plastic Company and the Herman Miller Company created its first Eames Fiberglass Chair in late 1949. It won a prize at the Museum of Modern Art’s Design Project. Fiberglass moved its way into popular productions. According to Kinetics Noise Control, it met the “low VOC emission requirements” and “reduces the embodied energy in the fiberglass binder up to 70%, thereby reducing the carbon footprint”. Although, even thought fiberglass was considered quite “green, due to the environmental impact of the production process in which the material was hazardous and non-recyclable, in which this method’s way of creating the Eames fiberglass chairs was halted in 1989 and the chairs were discontinued (Miel).
The Eames fiberglass chair came back in summer of 2013 in nine different colors made with reinforced polypropylene (Toor). In early 2013, Herman Miller has announced that they will be bringing back the fiberglass chair with a new method of production which is environmentally friendly. They have also introduced a new program, the “Take Back” program, in which you can recycle the plastic chairs after the chair is no longer wanted.
So what does this have to do with embodied energy? Embodied energy is the required energy for a products life cycle from extraction to shipping it to your door. When energy is used, it releases CO2 which is one of the major greenhouse gases. Embodied energy is looked over the lifespan of the manufacturer’s products, from material extraction to end life. In order to reduce embodied energy, manufacturers must reconsider what materials to use, the process of production, and how it is packaged and distributed. The Eames Fiberglass Chair is made up of fiberglass, steel, neoprene rubber, liquid epoxy resin, polyethylene foam and optionally wood. According to the “Inventory of Carbon & Energy” database by the UK, fiberglass uses 100 MJ/kg and kgCO2/kg8.10, recycled steel uses 9.40 MJ/kg and 0.42 kgCO2/kg, polyethylene foam uses 83.10 MJ/kg and 2.04 kgCO2/kg and wood roughly about 10.0 MJ/kg (Circular Ecology) and according to G.P. Thomas of Azotech, Polypropylene cuts down 88 percent of energy usage when recycled. Neoprene rubber and liquid epoxy resin could not be found in the Circular Ecology’s ICE database. It was quite difficult looking the exact energy usage for the Eames Fiberglass Chair specifically so I’d like to go more into Herman Miller does in general to keep things “green”.
For the Herman Miller Company, they have created the EQAT (Environmentally Quality Action Team) to put the company on a sustainable path. The EQAT is made up of smaller teams which are: the Communications Team, Design for the Environment (DfE), Environmental Affairs, Green Buildings Team, ISO 14001 Team, Environmental Low Impact Processing group, Indoor Air Team, Energy Reduction Team, and lastly, the Packaging/Transportation Team.
As green as Herman Miller tries to be with their production, a further look into their LEED Credits does not actually say much regarding the Eames Fiberglass Chair. The LEED, Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design, is a system measuring how green buildings are designed. It is rated on a point based system, up to 110 points and a minimum of 40 points to be considered as certified. Herman Miller is currently up to at least a certified LEED rating, trying to achieve Silver (a rank ranging from 50 to 59 points). They have set up a list of sustainability goals to reach the year of 2020 called the “Perfect Vision” which includes:
· Zero landfill – sending no waste to landfills.
· Zero hazardous waste generation – no dangerous waste by products.
· Zero air emissions (VOCs) – no dangerous chemical byproducts emitted.
· Zero process water use – no water use during manufacturing.
· 100 percent green electrical energy use – using only renewable energy sources.
· Company buildings constructed to meet a minimum LEED Silver certification.
· 100 percent of sales from DfE approved products.
Over the past few years, the Herman Miller has made drastic progress toward their Perfect Vision goals. For their report, in VOC Air Emissions, they released 320.30 tons in 1993 through 1994. In 2010 through 2011 it reduced down to 53.98 tons! As of 2013, they are at 83 percent of completing their Zero Air Emissions goal. For Hazardous Waste, it started off with 327.30 tons in 1993 through 1994 which reduced down to 15.37 tons in 2010 through 2011, sadly there was an increase of 5.8 tons in 2011 through 2012 (total of 21.15 tons), due to the usage of sodium bicarbonate to counteract the hydrochloric acid found in emissions, yet they managed to bring it down to 13.07 tons in 2013, which is 94 percent towards their goal. Solid Waste to Landfill started off with a whopping 13,171.80 tons in 1993 to 1994, down to 1,327.91 tons in 2010 to 2011 and 283.20 tons in 2013, a 97 percent completion of their goal. The Process Water Use started off approximately 114.80 million gallons in 1993 to 1994, down to 28.80 million gallons in 2010 to 2011 and finally 13.58 million gallons in 2013, which makes them at 81 percent towards their goal. In 1993, they started off with no renewable energy and by 2010, they have completely reached their goal by using renewable sources only (Herman Miller Company).
As of energy usage at the company, they have recorded 90 million kilowatt hours in 2009 in electricity usage. It barely made any extreme changes but it was at 85 million kWh in 2012. Gas usage on the other hand started off with 353,500 MMBtu in 2009 and fell to 294,085 MMBtu in 2012. But keep in mind that they started using renewable energy in 2010 (Herman Miller Company).
Regarding the environmental friendliness of the Eames Fiberglass Chairs, the Herman Miller Company does not reveal much detail in how much precisely. Herman Miller became the first large company to provide the ecoScorecard for public view. It contains environmental information of their products which will make it easier for them to organize and achieve a higher level in LEED certification. According to their ecoScorecard on their website, the Eames Molded Plastic Armchair with 4-Leg Base is 13% post-consumer recycled content and 2% pre-consumer recycled content. The Eames Molded Plastic Side Chair with 4-Leg Base is 14% post-consumer recycled content and 3% pre-consumer recycled content. Both chairs are given a Gold GreenGuard Certification, meaning low chemical emissions for building materials, finishes and furnishings (Herman Miller Company).
According to the Environmental Product Summary given from the Herman Miller site, the material content differs depending on if there is wood or not and if its upholstered or not. This is the basic breakdown they give on the fiberglass chair:
The steel is roughly 37 percent recycled material, but 100 percent recyclable. It also has a trivalent chrome finish which emits a very small amount of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds). The plastic content is considered as ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) recyclable.
As for the end life of the chairs, the Herman Miller Company offers to take back the Eames Molded Fiberglass Chairs after its use, called the “Take Back Program”. The chair owners are given an option of either giving up the whole chair or keep the base and only replace the shell. The shells are then easily disassembled and shells would be placed into a recyclable container which once full, grinded down to fine powder which is then sent to be used in road construction.
How the Herman Miller Company handles their products and the environment is described with great care. I see great potential in their products and that they will definitely succeed in their “Perfect Vision” goals. The company has a long way to go to be reaching a Platinum LEED rating but I believe they will definitely reach it. After researching about the Eames Fiberglass Chair by them, I really began to admire the chair, makes me want to invest in its design of simplicity.
Handler, Kaitlin. "Molded Plastic Chairs." The History of the Eames Molded Plastic Chairs (n.d.): n. pag. Web 5 Feb. 2014 <http://www.idsa.org/eames-fiberglass-chairs-1948>.
Handler, Kaitlin. "Molded Plastic Chairs." Molded Plastic Chairs / Eames Designs. Eames Office, 2013. Web. 10 Feb. 2014 <http://eamesdesigns.com/library-entry/molded-plastic-chairs/>.
Miel, Rhoda. "Herman Miller Brings Back the Eames Chair." Plastics News. Plasticsnews.com, 11 June 2013. Web. 5 Feb. 2014. <http://www.plasticsnews.com/article/20130611/NEWS/130619975/herman-miller-brings-back-the-eames-chair>
Thomas, G. P. "Recycling of Polypropylene (PP)." Recycling of Polypropylene (PP). AZoCleantech, 25 June 2012. Web Article. 10 Feb. 2014. <http://www.azocleantech.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=240>.
Environmental Product Summary: Molded Fiberglass Chairs. Zeeland, Michigan: Herman Miller, 2014. PDF. <http://www.hermanmiller.com/content/dam/hermanmiller/documents/environmental/eps/EPS_MFC.pdf>
"Our Vision and Policy." Hermanmiller.com. Herman Miller, Inc., n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2014 <http://www.hermanmiller.com/about-us/our-values-in-action/environmental-advocacy/our-vision-and-policy.html>
"Eames Molded Plastic Chairs Return in a New, More Sustainable Fiberglass." Herman Miller. Herman Miller, 20 May 2013. Web. 10 Feb. 2014. <http://www.hermanmiller.com/about-us/press/press-releases/all/eames-molded-plastic-chairs-return-in-a-new-more-sustainable-fiberglass.html>
"Herman Miller - Eames Shell Chairs: Overview" Ecospecifier.com. Ecospecifier Global. Web. 3 March 2014. <http://www.ecospecifier.com.au/products/detailed-assessment.aspx?prodid=12841>
"Environmental Product Summary: Materials" Herman Miller. Herman Miller. Web. 10 Feb. 2014. <http://www.hermanmiller.com/content/dam/hermanmiller/documents/materials/reference_info/EPS_Materials.pdf>
13 March 2014
Wastes and Emissions of the Eames Fiberglass Chair
As key figures in the evolution of modern design, Charles and Ray Eames brought a freshness and purposefulness to furniture design. Although known as much more than simply furniture designers, the Eames were especially influential in the furniture industry—their creations continue to live on as representative pieces of their time. Through experimentation and the objective of providing minimalistic, timeless design, the molded fiberglass chair came to be one of the most well-known pieces of furniture in the Eames collection (“Eames Molded Plastic Chairs Return” 1). Despite the ultimate removal of the original fiberglass chair from the market due to emission hazards throughout the chair’s life cycle, the Eames chair has returned in a safer, more sustainable form that is more befitting of current “green” standards, demonstrating the importance of redesign for the reduction of wastes and emissions.
In partnership with Herman Miller, manufacture of the Eames fiberglass chair began in 1950 and continued for almost forty years until the company’s realization that the lack of recyclability of the fiberglass was too harmful of a consequence in production. Herman Miller demonstrates quality design in its products through a constant search for better sustainability and decreased environmental destruction (“Design for the Environment” 1). The company was able to follow through with this methodology when, in 2000, the chair returned in the form of polypropylene; however, the new chair lacked the original fiberglass detailing which had attracted customers the first time around. Returning to the root of the design, a recyclable fiberglass is now used in the new production of the chair, first brought to the market in 2013. Herman Miller is now able to produce an “emission-free” fiberglass chair with a safer resin and the process of using the “dry-binder method,” allowing for the reduced release of harmful substances into the environment (“Eames Molded Plastic Chairs Return” 1).
As the main component of the Eames chair, the production of fiberglass is a key contributor to the emissions in the beginning stages of the manufacturing process. Firstly, the mining of silica sand (the main raw material in fiberglass) pollutes the air with dust, and exposure to the silica dust has the potential to be a health hazard (EQB 21). Next, the transport of the raw materials to the manufacturing locations marks the second stage of emitting substances into the air. Not only do these emissions come from the vehicles of transportation, but also from the materials—the raw materials release more dust into the air as they are moved from location to location (“Glass Fiber Manufacturing” 1, 6). After the materials reach the factory, the mixing and melting of the glass is made possible by heating the raw materials (such as silica sand and limestone) in a large furnace. This process emits gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the high temperature required and the chemical nature of the mixing of materials. Additionally, although there is a “variation in emission rates” from furnace to furnace, those powered by fossil fuels emit “combustion products” (6). After the molten glass has formed, it is split into fibers, which must then be bound by the process of either wet or dry binding (the original Eames chair was produced with a wet binding technique, which caused more emissions to be released in the air). The original wet binder typically consists of “phenol-formaldehyde resin, water, urea, lignin, silane, and ammonia” (3). Many of these materials have an adverse effect on the environment when released into the air, particularly phenol-formaldehyde. Phenol can exhibit negative effects when inhaled, as well as when it collects in water (“Phenol” 1). Formaldehyde is a carcinogen that can build up as it accumulates in unventilated air and is especially dangerous to those exposed to it for long periods of time (“Formaldehyde” 1). The binding process has the largest effect on emissions, as the substances are released at much higher risk towards the end of the fiberglass production—emissions are likely to be emitted into the atmosphere and condensed (“Glass Fiber Manufacturing” 6, 15).
The next step in the production of the original fiberglass chair involves a manufacturing process of the shell that raised health and environmental concerns due to additional emissions of volatile organic compounds. In order to achieve the classic shape of the Eames chair, a mold must be used to form the fiberglass shell. By using an open mold, the shell undergoes either a spray-up or hand lay-up to incorporate resin into the fiberglass and give it its shape (“Processes” 1). One can assume that the spray-up method releases more toxins into the air, as the application of the resin is not as direct as in the hand lay-up method. The application of the resin emits styrene, a VOC which not only brings about health hazards, but environmental hazards as well. Styrene is most harmful towards those who work with fiberglass molds in the factories—they are in the most direct contact with the styrene present in the resin. After the resin is applied, the styrene then travels through the air, water, and soils (“Styrene” 1). As the VOC is distributed, it proves to negatively affect aquatic wildlife and the ozone (it is considered a hazardous air pollutant (HAP)) (“Styrene Fact Sheet” 9-10).
After undergoing the factory production process, the chair is distributed to retailers or delivered directly to the customer. The packaging involved in this process includes a cardboard exterior, a polyethylene cover, and Styrofoam support (“Eames Plastic Side Chair” 2). Cardboard is easily recyclable and can be reused after the packaging has been disposed of. Polyethylene, on the other hand, must undergo a more complicated process to be recycled. The plastic is either mechanically or chemically recycled, or it undergoes “energy recovery,” where the material is incinerated. (In reality, however, most polymer plastics end up in landfills, allowing excess waste to collect, with long-term biodegradability (Achilias et al. 1-2).) The process of energy recovery is still a work-in-progress; plastics are not easy to melt down, and the costs may outweigh the benefits. While burning plastic produces a high amount of energy (because they originate from crude oil) and limits the amount of waste buildup in landfills, several emissions are released in the process. The air becomes polluted with substances like carbon dioxide and VOCs, as well as harmful carcinogens (Al-Salem, Lettieri, and Baeyans 2640). The Styrofoam in the packaging is also likely to find its way into a landfill, as it is made of polystyrene. Since polystyrene comes from benzene and ethylene found in petroleum, the material is non-renewable and is left to decompose over a long period of time (Schmidt et al. 931).
One of the most significant aspects of sustainable design is a product’s ability to be recycled. As a composite material, fiberglass used in the original Eames shell chair was difficult to recycle, especially in combination with the resin used at the time. Composite materials cannot be recycled in a simple manner due to the fact that they are mixtures of several other components which are not easily broken down and recycled individually (Yang et al. 54). A solution to this problem surfaced when Herman Miller began producing polypropylene molded plastic chairs. It is difficult to manufacture furniture without the production of any emissions, and despite its recyclability, polypropylene also emits VOCs, and airborne emissions increase with the use of additives in the polypropylene (Maier and Calafut 79-81). Furthermore, although completely recyclable, the chair no longer held its appeal as the well-known fiberglass shell chair, and while still produced, this version of the chair is simply a minor development on the path to the newest fiberglass version.
With the current Herman Miller design, the fiberglass chair not only emits less VOCs; it is also recyclable due to a change in the materials the fiberglass is made with. Dumping fiberglass into landfills poses not only an environmental problem but an economic one as well. Prices for disposal of materials like fiberglass in landfills are rising, and it has become of increasing importance to find other ways to deal with fiberglass at the end of its life cycle (Job 21). Fiberglass from the current chair can be recycled in several ways, and although its quality is reduced at the end of the chair’s life cycle, the fiberglass still has more value than a piece of trash in a landfill. After being broken down, the fiberglass shell can be transformed into many a useful object, like “picnic tables, fencing, and sea walls” (“Fiberglass Recycling” 1). Another solution to recycling fiberglass is to collect fiberglass waste and transport it to companies that can use the material in cement. This allows for the fiberglass to be both recycled as a renewable material and used as a source of energy (rather than fossil fuels) (Middelfart 1).
The current chair is further recyclable due to its metal base, made from steel and aluminum, both of which are some of the most sustainable metals that can be used. Steel and aluminum emissions during the transportation are similar to those in the transportation of fiberglass materials—dust particles are released into the air as the raw materials are moved around. Steelmaking furnaces produce carbon dioxide, although improved methods have reduced these emissions in recent decades (Burchart-Korol 236). At the end of its life cycle, steel can be completely recycled and used in a new product without losing its quality, proving to be extremely sustainable (Yellishetty et al. 650). Similarly, aluminum is made using gas furnaces to process bauxite, the primary material aluminum is produced from. Due to the furnaces’ tendency to emit harmful substances into the air, safer ways of producing aluminum are continually explored, but the emissions from the production of both steel and aluminum are unavoidable. When it comes to the disposal of the chair, however, aluminum can also be recycled without a loss in quality and therefore contributes to the Eames chair’s recyclability (Tabereaux and Peterson 839-917).
While the wastes and emissions of the original and polypropylene version of the fiberglass shell chair were relatively easy to uncover, specific processes of the newest chair have proved rather elusive. Through the Herman Miller press release announcing the introduction of the return of the fiberglass chair, a summarization of the improvements is given, but there is no way of making certain what exactly makes the “new” fiberglass so different. Is it no longer in a composite form? Are there new technologies to melt or grind the glass down into a more recyclable form (some sources mention grinding methods, but since they are pending patents, it is questionable whether these methods are currently in use)? Due to the limited information available on the now sustainable fiberglass chair, I had to assume that the current version is recycled in various ways that were not viable options when the initial product was on the market in the 50s. The press release also states that manufacturing of the chair is now “emission-free,” which makes me question what this term actually means, as any process of producing furniture implies at least a minimal amount of emissions. Under the assumption that there are still a fair amount of wastes and emissions from this manufacturing process (and that this press release is worded in such a way which markets the product in the most positive light possible), it is probable that the emission of VOCs is simply present in a lesser form. Additionally, although it is mentioned that the chair is more sustainable, it can also be assumed that there are still wastes that must be dealt with at the end of the chair’s use. Perhaps the limitations on finding detailed information about the current Eames chair are mainly due to the fact that production only began in 2013; as the processes are quite new, most of what can be found specifically about the chair is relative to the original version. Conversely, these limitations may also stem from the company’s desire to keep the accessibility of information to the public to a minimum, as revealing too much could possibly detract from the “emission-free” image that has been given to the new fiberglass chair.
From the information I discovered about the wastes and emissions of the Eames chair, it is clear that the effects of producing furniture have a considerable impact on the environment. To add onto these effects, one must consider that furniture—especially chairs—is mass produced; the emissions from the complete manufacturing process reach more than just a few people, and every negative emission has the potential to build up in our surroundings. From beginning to end, each stage of the life cycle of the fiberglass chair churns out some type of waste, whether it is released into the air, the water, or is left to decompose in a landfill. For the manufacturing process of a chair—or any item that requires human modification—it is virtually impossible to completely eliminate the emissions of VOCs and other air pollutants. Little can be done about making the process of obtaining the raw materials less harmful. It is also extremely difficult to find the most efficient recycling method for each component of the chair. Choosing an option requires weighing the costs and benefits of whether it would be more effective to expend more energy to avoid letting waste pile up in landfills or if recycling materials in a lower-quality form is worth it. Another issue with the end of the chair’s life cycle is the option to further pursue the energy recovery method—several sources’ commentary on this method include the current disadvantages, such as the toxic emissions produced, but also add that there is room for improvement.
Through its life cycle, the original Eames molded fiberglass chair requires the modification of several raw materials to processed secondary materials, resulting in a wasteful end. With the help of a new fiberglass material and the changes in waste and emission management in the present day, the chair has been able to return to the market, allowing for original customers to have access to a more environmentally friendly version of a classic favorite, as well as for the design to continue on in the modern furniture design world. The reintroduction of the molded shell chair represents the value of redesigning a product to meet the standards of changing times without losing authenticity. In finding a production method which lessens wastes and emissions, Herman Miller has successfully preserved an iconic piece of furniture history.
Achilias, D.S., et al. "Chemical Recycling of Plastic Wastes Made from Polyethylene (LDPE and
HDPE) and Polypropylene (PP)." Journal of Hazardous Materials 149.3 (2007): 536-42.
ScienceDirect. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
Al-Salem, S.M., P. Lettieri, and J. Baeyans. "Recycling and Recovery Routes of Plastic Solid
Waste (PSW): A Review." Waste Management 29.10 (2009): 2625-43. ScienceDirect. Web.
11 Mar. 2014. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0956053X09002190>.
Burchart-Korol, Dorota. "Life Cycle Assessment of Steel Production in Poland: A Case Study."
Journal of Cleaner Production 54 (2013): 235-43. ScienceDirect. Web. 11 Mar. 2014.
"Charles and Ray Eames." Design Within Reach. Design Within Reach, n.d. Web. 6 Mar. 2014.
"Design for the Environment." Herman Miller. Herman Miller, n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2014.
Eames Molded Plastic Chairs Return in a New, More Sustainable Fiberglass. Herman Miller.
Herman Miller, 20 May 2013. Web. 10 Mar. 2014. <http://www.hermanmiller.com/about-
EPA. "Glass Fiber Manufacturing." N.d. PDF file.
EPA. "Styrene Fact Sheet: Support Document." Dec. 1994. PDF file.
EQB. "Report on Silica Sand." 20 Mar. 2013. PDF file.
"Fiberglass Recycling." American FiberGreen Products. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2014.
Friend, Duane. "The Pros and Cons of Styrofoam." Ed. Doug Peterson. Feb. 2005. PDF file.
"Formaldehyde (methyl aldehyde)." National Pollutant Inventory. Commonwealth of Australia,
n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2014. <http://www.npi.gov.au/resource/phenol>.
Iepure, Bianca, et al. "Compobastfiber Guide." N.d. PDF file.
Job, Stella. "Recycling Glass Fibre Reinforced Composites – History and Progress." Reinforced
Plastics 57.5 (2013): 19-23. ScienceDirect. Web. 11 Mar. 2014.
Maier, Clive, and Theresa Calafut. "10.1 Hazardous Substances." Polypropylene: The Definitive
User's Guide and Databook. Norwich: Plastics Design Library, 1998. 79-81. PDF file.
Middelfart. "Breakthrough: Recycling of Fibreglass is Now a Reality." Fiberline Composites.
Fiberline Compos A/S, 14 Sept. 2010. Web. 9 Mar. 2014. <http://www.fiberline.com/news/
"Phenol." National Pollutant Inventory. Commonwealth of Australia, n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2014.
"Processes." Composites One. Composites One, n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2014.
Schmidt, P.N.S., et al. "Flexural Test On Recycled Polystyrene." Procedia Engineering 10
(2011): 930-35. ScienceDirect. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/
"Styrene (ethenylbenzene)." National Pollutant Inventory. Commonwealth of Australia, n.d.
Web. 10 Mar. 2014. <http://www.npi.gov.au/resource/styrene-ethenylbenzene>.
Tabereaux, Alton T., and Ray D. Peterson. "Aluminum Production." Industrial Processes. N.p.:
Elsevier, 2014. 839-917. Vol. 3 of Treatise on Process Metallurgy: Industrial Processes. 3
vols. ScienceDirect. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
Vitra. "Eames Plastic Side Chair." N.d. PDF file.
Yang, Yongxiang, et al. "Recycling of Composite Materials." Chemical Engineering and
Processing: Process Intensification 51 (2012): 53-68. ScienceDirect. Web. 11 Mar. 2014.
Yellishetty, Mohan, et al. "Environmental Life-Cycle Comparisons of Steel Production and
Recycling: Sustainability Issues, Problems and Prospects." Environmental Science & Policy
14.6 (2011): 650-63. ScienceDirect. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/